Understanding the clinical and molecular basis of thyroid orbitopathy: a review of recent evidence

Pratheeba Devi Nivean, Nivean Madhivanan, Govindasamy Kumaramanikavel, Tos T J M Berendschot, Carroll A B Webers, Dion Paridaens

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Thyroid eye disease (TED) is an autoimmune orbital inflammatory disease which ranges from mild to severe. Tissue remodeling, fibrosis and fat proliferation cause changes in the orbital tissues which can affect esthetics and visual function. In its severe form, it is sight threatening, debilitating, and disfiguring and may lead to social stigma, the embarrassment about which has an impact on the quality of life of those affected and the family members. The pathogenesis of TED, which is influenced by genetic, immunological, and environmental factors, is complex and not fully elucidated. However, it remains unknown what factors determine the severity of the disease. Recent research has revealed a number of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of this disease. In this overview of TED, we focus on new insights and perspectives regarding biological agents that may provide a basis for new treatment modalities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-34
Number of pages10
JournalHormones (Athens, Greece)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


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