PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and multimodal imaging findings of a series of cases of serous macular detachment (SMD) caused by Best disease (BD) masquerading as neovascular age-related macular degeneration or central serous chorioretinopathy that were inappropriately treated with intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor or laser therapy. This study will also present data to support age-related progressive choroidal thickening in BD patients, which may play a role in the development of SMD in this population.
METHODS: Clinical examination and multimodal imaging findings, including color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography-angiography, were reviewed and analyzed. Subfoveal choroidal thickness was also formally measured, and an age-related choroidal thickness analysis was performed and compared with a normal population.
RESULTS: Twenty-six eyes of 13 patients (5 women) were included. Median age was 44 years. Nine patients presented with a history of SMD and subretinal fluid recalcitrant to various therapies, including intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections and photodynamic therapy. Best disease was subsequently diagnosed genetically in six patients and by detailed family history in seven. Mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity for all 26 eyes at last follow-up was +0.36 (Snellen equivalent of 20/46). Subfoveal choroidal thickness positively correlated with age for our cohort, increasing linearly at a rate of 25.6 µm per decade (R = 0.64; P < 0.001). Choroidal neovascularization was identified in four eyes on optical coherence tomography angiography, but these eyes did not respond to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment.
CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of BD should be considered in patients presenting with SMD and recalcitrant subretinal fluid masquerading as neovascular age-related macular degeneration or chronic central serous chorioretinopathy to avoid unnecessary treatment procedures. The positive correlation of subfoveal choroidal thickness with age in BD patients may be a factor in the pathogenesis and development of SMD in this population. Recognizing the multimodal imaging features of SMD associated with BD, described in detail in this study, will guide practitioners to the accurate diagnosis of BD and reduce the risk of unnecessary intraocular procedures with potential complications.