Phase-stabilized optical frequency domain imaging at 1-µm for the measurement of blood flow in the human choroid

Boy Braaf, Koenraad A Vermeer, Victor Arni D P Sicam, Elsbeth van Zeeburg, Jan C van Meurs, Johannes F de Boer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


In optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) the measurement of interference fringes is not exactly reproducible due to small instabilities in the swept-source laser, the interferometer and the data-acquisition hardware. The resulting variation in wavenumber sampling makes phase-resolved detection and the removal of fixed-pattern noise challenging in OFDI. In this paper this problem is solved by a new post-processing method in which interference fringes are resampled to the exact same wavenumber space using a simultaneously recorded calibration signal. This method is implemented in a high-speed (100 kHz) high-resolution (6.5 µm) OFDI system at 1-µm and is used for the removal of fixed-pattern noise artifacts and for phase-resolved blood flow measurements in the human choroid. The system performed close to the shot-noise limit (<1dB) with a sensitivity of 99.1 dB for a 1.7 mW sample arm power. Suppression of fixed-pattern noise artifacts is shown up to 39.0 dB which effectively removes all artifacts from the OFDI-images. The clinical potential of the system is shown by the detection of choroidal blood flow in a healthy volunteer and the detection of tissue reperfusion in a patient after a retinal pigment epithelium and choroid transplantation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20886-903
Number of pages18
JournalBiomedical Optics Express
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2011


  • Algorithms
  • Artifacts
  • Calibration
  • Choroid/blood supply
  • Diagnostic Imaging/methods
  • Equipment Design
  • Fourier Analysis
  • Humans
  • Interferometry/methods
  • Lasers
  • Light
  • Motion
  • Ophthalmology/methods
  • Optics and Photonics/methods
  • Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Time Factors
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods


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