Uveal melanoma (UM) is the second most frequent type of melanoma. Therapeutic options for UM favor minimally invasive techniques such as irradiation for vision preservation. As a consequence, no tumor material is obtained. Without available tissue, molecular analyses for gene expression, mutation or copy number analysis cannot be performed. Thus, proper patient stratification is impossible and patients' uncertainty about their prognosis rises. Minimally invasive techniques have been studied for prognostication in UM. Blood-based biomarker analysis has become more common in recent years; however, no clinically standardized protocol exists. This review summarizes insights in biomarker analysis, addressing new insights in circulating tumor cells, circulating tumor DNA, extracellular vesicles, proteomics, and metabolomics. Additionally, medical imaging can play a significant role in staging, surveillance, and prognostication of UM and is addressed in this review. We propose that combining multiple minimally invasive modalities using tumor biomarkers should be the way forward and warrant more attention in the coming years.
|Published - 21 Feb 2022