Complications Following Enucleations and Subsequent Oculoplastic Surgeries

Jennifer S N Verhoekx, Win Hou Willy Tse, Anina Rengifo Coolman, Yashna B van Kinderen, Rene J Wubbels, Dion Paridaens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


PURPOSE: To analyze the complications and subsequent type and frequency of oculoplastic surgeries after enucleation in adult patients.

METHODS: The authors conducted a retrospective case note review of adult patients who underwent enucleation followed by placement of an alloplastic implant wrapped in donor sclera between 2001 and 2013. The data collected included patient demographics, surgical indication, implant size, postoperative complications, and subsequent oculoplastic surgical procedures.

RESULTS: The authors included 186 patients who underwent enucleation during the study period. Malignancy was the leading cause for this operation (79.6%) followed by a blind painful eye (12.4%). Most postoperative complications were managed conservatively with an adjustment of the size of the ocular prosthesis. In most cases, the 20-mm and 22-mm implants were used, and implant size ranged from 16 to 22 mm. There was no correlation between implant size and complication rate. Twenty-six patients required subsequent surgery after enucleation (14%). In total, 9.7% (18 patients of 186) patients underwent eyelid surgery after enucleation, most frequently for blepharoptosis (7%). The interval between enucleation and eyelid surgeries was, on average, 1.9 years. Less frequently, surgery is needed for socket repair for anterior surface breakdown (1.6%), and the interval between enucleation and socket surgery was 0.9 years.

CONCLUSIONS: The most frequent complications following enucleation were blepharoptosis and enophthalmos with a deep upper eyelid sulcus. About 15% of patients required subsequent oculoplastic procedures after, on average, 2 years, while surgery in the early postoperative phase was rarely indicated.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)320-323
Number of pages4
JournalOphthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2018


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Allografts
  • Blepharoptosis/etiology
  • Eye Enucleation
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Orbital Implants
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Prosthesis Implantation/adverse effects
  • Reoperation/statistics & numerical data
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sclera/transplantation
  • Young Adult


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