PURPOSE: To report a series of 21 patients with perifoveal exudative vascular anomalous complex (PEVAC) and to investigate the anatomical changes over time.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study. Clinical data of consecutive patients, presenting at the Rotterdam Eye Hospital between 2014 and 2019, were analyzed. The data collected included best-corrected visual acuity, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), OCT-angiography, fluorescence angiography, and indocyanine green angiography.
RESULTS: We included 21 patients with a PEVAC lesion with a mean follow-up of 24.3 ± 13.8 months (range, 9-46 months). Patients with PEVAC were on average 75.3 ± 11.1 years (range, 53-90 years). The large perifoveal vascular aneurysmal abnormality was associated with small retinal hemorrhages in six patients and hard exudates in three patients. The PEVAC lesion was associated with intraretinal cystic spaces on OCT in 15 patients. Twelve of 21 patients showed no changes in cystic spaces on OCT during follow-up: 9 patients had stable cystic spaces and 3 patients had no cystic spaces. In contrast, in 9 of 21 patients, we observed changes in cystic spaces on OCT during follow-up. In two patients, cystic spaces appeared during follow-up, and in seven patients, there was a spontaneous resolution of cystic spaces. In three of these seven patients, the PEVAC lesion completely disappeared. Two patients, with stable intraretinal cystic spaces on OCT, were treated with intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor without improvement.
CONCLUSION: Perifoveal exudative vascular anomalous complex is an idiopathic perifoveal retinal vascular abnormality that is associated with intraretinal cystic spaces. These intraretinal cystic spaces associated with a PEVAC lesion, and even the PEVAC lesion itself, can have a spontaneous resolution over time.